Male partner preference
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- 14 Awesome Partner Preference Samples For Men & Women
- Neonatal Programming of Adult Partner Preference in Male Rats
- Social partner preferences of male and female fighting fish (Betta splendens).
- Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection
- Conditioned partner preference in male and female rats for a somatosensory cue.
14 Awesome Partner Preference Samples For Men & Women
Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade.
Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females.
Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females.
Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate.
Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.
Arginine vasopressin AVP is a neuropeptide, which exerts its effects in both the brain and periphery. Within the brain, the AVP system acts to influence socially motivated behaviors 1 utilizing several different neurocircuits 2 , including social recognition, communication, and aggression. The AVP system is widespread throughout the central nervous system well before birth 3 , suggesting an organizational role in development 4. Early manipulations of the AVP system have been shown to alter behavior across life.
In rats, prenatal AVP injections impact fetal suckling behavior 5 while juvenile injections of AVP receptor 1a antagonists disrupt play behavior 6. The effects of early postnatal injections of AVP can stretch into adulthood, increasing male aggression in prairie voles 7 and affiliative attachment in zebra finches 8.
Pharmacological manipulations of the AVP system help elucidate its various functions while confirming the presence of critical periods for the organizational impact of AVP signaling. More recently, studies have found associations between disruption of the AVP system and the expression of certain neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, like autism spectrum disorder ASD.
For example, plasma AVP levels [Ref. However, acute studies have left several important questions unanswered. Specifically, do the potentially beneficial aspects of acute administration extend to chronic administration? Or, could prolonged exposure cause unforeseen long-term effects? Thus, the purpose of our study was to explore the long-term effects of early IN-AVP administration on behavior across life in prairie voles Microtus ochrogaster.
The medium dose reflects the dose used in these trials but controlled for weight. As voles are typically weaned around day 20, we explored whether parental behavior changed because of pup treatment, and then, each animal postweaning was tested in several experimental paradigms. From tests of anxiety, exploration, and sociality in the juvenile period to tests of partner preference formation and aggression in adulthood, we explored whether a single week of IN-AVP exposure could perpetuate behavioral changes across life.
We hypothesized that the effects of IN-AVP would vary by dose, possibly representing differential activation of multiple AVP sub-circuits within the brain, or activation of oxytocin receptors at high doses. Male prairie voles have higher AVP immunoreactivity in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, lateral habenular nucleus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis [Ref.
Finally, we predicted that the effects of IN-AVP would be context-specific, increasing sociality during non-threatening encounters e. We recruited prairie vole subjects 52 males, 51 females from our breeding colony located in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. To help control for potential litter effects, each litter had at least one AVP-treated animal and one saline-treated animal within sex.
Each test subject was randomly assigned to one out of four treatment groups, including saline control, low-dose AVP 0. From P15 to 21 early juvenile period , voles were given intranasal treatments twice daily.
Each day, the first treatment was given between and hours, while the second treatment was given between and hours. Treatments were administered through cannula tubing, which was attached to a blunt cannula needle 33 gauge, 2.
Treatment order was randomized each day and administration was rapid less than 30 s making handling consistent across treatment groups. All animals were subjected to a series of testing paradigms from weaning to adulthood. These tests were digitally recorded and manually scored using Behavior Tracker 1. Each scorer was blind to subject group assignment. See Figure 1 for a summary of all experimental procedures. Following the first treatment on the first P15 and sixth day P20 of dosing, each animal was observed in their home-cage approximately 15 min posttreatment for a total of 5 min.
All subjects received an open field test on P At the beginning of the test, the vole was placed in the center of the arena while their behavior was digitally recorded for the following 10 min using a camera. Observers recorded the frequency of line crosses, fecal droppings, and rearing and the duration of autogrooming, thigmotaxis, and freezing behavior.
We split the test into two phases, which included a familiarization phase NOF and a testing phase NOT occurring on separate, consecutive days following open field testing P23 and 24, respectively.
Both phases were conducted in the open field test arena to help habituate the animals to the environment. During the familiarization phase, two identical objects were placed in opposite corners of the open field arena. Like open field testing, the subject was placed in the center of the arena and their behavior was recorded for 10 min. The following day, the animal was reintroduced to the arena for the testing phase for 10 more minutes.
During this phase, a familiar object from the day before was placed into the arena with a novel object; object placement was consistent between the tests. We measured the same behaviors in this paradigm as open field while including a measure for the duration of time spent interacting with the objects. Observers recorded affiliative behaviors sniffing, contact, allogrooming, play , anxiety-related behaviors digging, rearing, autogrooming, defensive rearing , and aggressive behaviors i.
Play behavior was recorded as a sum of the different behaviors described by Chau et al. In addition to play and rearing, all aggressive behaviors were recorded as frequencies.
All other behaviors were recorded as durations. The intrasexual aggression test was similar to the juvenile affiliation test, with two significant differences: 1 the stimulus animal was collared for identification purposes, 2 the test was done twice during adulthood.
The first test occurred the day before partner preference testing P42 and the second took place the day after P The first test provided a baseline for adult sociality and aggressiveness while the second was meant to test for post-pair-bonding behaviors like mate-guarding. Each test was digitally recorded for 10 min and observers scored all the same behaviors as in juvenile affiliation. Following the first intrasexual aggression test, all subjects underwent two partner preference tests over two consecutive days P43 and 44, respectively.
For the first partner preference test, male subjects underwent a cohabitation of 2 h, while females were given 30 min.
The discrepancy in cohabitation times between the sexes reflect differences in the time it takes for males and females to form a pair-bond naturally.
While females can form a pair-bond after only 6 h of cohabitation, males generally require at least 24 h Thus, the deficient cohabitation periods employed on the first day were meant to test for IN-AVP-stimulated facilitations of pair bonding.
Tethers consisted of a cable tie around the neck of the vole employed carefully while animals are monitored attached to fishing line, which is then secured firmly to the side of the cage. The test animal was free to move throughout the apparatus while the two stimulus animals were confined to their separate chambers. The three-chambered paradigm provided the subjects with a choice of a familiar partner, novel stranger, or an empty cage for 3 h.
Food and water was readily available in all chambers throughout the testing period. Following the first partner preference test, the test animal and familiar partner were housed together overnight. A second partner preference test was then done the following day approximately 24 h of cohabitation between tests after a sufficient cohabitation period was provided to normally establish a pair-bond in both males and females.
Thus, the second partner preference test was used to detect potential IN-AVP-stimulated deficits in pair bonding. A different stranger vole was used for this second test.
For both tests, we measured the duration of cage location and side-to-side contact while recording the frequency of aggression. To determine whether the potential effects of IN-AVP administration could be explained by weight changes, we measured all subjects on the first day of treatment, last day of treatment, and once after all testing had been completed. As direct treatment comparisons across the sexes were confounded by the difference in behavioral baselines, we decided to analyze males and females separately.
Thus, we examined the effects of developmental AVP exposure in both sexes but not between sexes. We also controlled for the potentially confounding effect of litter on our results by assigning a unique identifier to all pups from the same litter and including this variable in our analyses.
All analyses were conducted using R version 3. We began by fitting two models for each dependent variable, one including the litter variable as a random effect and one without it; both models included treatment group as a fixed effect.
These two models were compared using an exact likelihood ratio test from the RLRsim package 28 to determine whether the presence of the variance component provided a better fit for the model. The test statistic from this likelihood ratio test is based on simulated values from the exact sample distribution as derived by Crainiceanu and Ruppert Each model that included the random effect was fit using the lme4 package 30 , while all other models were fit using base R functionality.
After selecting the best model, we conducted a series of follow-up tests to confirm that our model met the assumptions for ANOVA testing. For the normality assumption, we prioritized visual inspection of Q—Q plots 31 , but confirmed our observations using a combination of the Shapiro—Wilk test and measures of skewness and kurtosis. Despite the Shapiro—Wilk test having the best power for a given significance when compared to other normality tests 32 , it is biased by sample size When models contained outliers or heteroscedastic data, we refit the model using robust techniques 36 , Robust linear models were fit using the MASS package 38 , while robust mixed linear models were fit using the robustlmm package After selecting the best model for each dependent variable and satisfying the assumptions for one-way ANOVA testing, we passed the models to the car package 40 to produce the ANOVA tables.
To determine whether overall parental handling differed between the groups, we combined the data from the dam with the sire and then compared total parental handling on individual observation days. Preliminary analyses confirmed no treatment differences within each observation day, so we then summed all parental handling behaviors across both days and reanalyzed the data.
For partner preference data, we standardized the contact scores by subtracting the time spent with the stranger from the time spent with the partner, depicting the magnitude of the preference for the partner over the stranger.
We tested whether our difference scores were significantly greater than 0, indicating a preference for the partner over the stranger. Then, we compared these scores across treatment groups to see if the magnitude of partner preference was affected by AVP treatment. Intranasal AVP administration had no effect on acute parental handling; Table 1. In addition, none of the treatment groups, including control, preferentially maintained proximity with the novel object over the familiar object.
Like with open field testing, we found no treatment group differences in anxiety or exploratory measures across both phases of recognition testing; Table 2. We decided to combine fecal boli production across the three paradigms to confirm an overall effect of treatment. Figure 2. Fecal boli were aggregated across open field and novel object tests upper row. The dose—response curves appear to differ by sex for fecal boli production; male results reflect a U -shaped curve A and female results approximate a linear effect B , peaking at the medium dose.
Neonatal Programming of Adult Partner Preference in Male Rats
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Social partner preferences of male and female fighting fish (Betta splendens).
Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles.
Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection
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Estradiol, derived from aromatization fo testosterone T , is essential during a critical period around the time of birth for masculinization and defeminization of adult sexual behavior in male rats e. Baum, The role of estradiol in organizing adult sexual orientation, as indicated by partner preference behavior, has received relatively little attention Adkins-Regan,
Conditioned partner preference in male and female rats for a somatosensory cue.
Metrics details. It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice Mus musculus musculus in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.
Here, we asked whether a somatosensory cue, a rodent jacket, could act as a discrete cue to establish a conditioned partner choice CPC. On the final test, each experimental male or female was placed into an open field with two sexually receptive partners, one jacketed and the other unjacketed. A trend was found for more males to ejaculate first with jacketed females relative to the unjacketed females, whereas the females had no preference. Males and females in the second study were exposed sequentially to jacketed, sexually receptive partners, and unjacketed, sexually nonreceptive partners prior to a final open field test. Both males and females displayed a significant CPC for the jacketed opposite sex partner. This study demonstrates that a somatosensory cue previously used to establish sexual arousal as a contextual cue on rats can be used as a discrete, partner-based cue to establish a CPC for a particular partner wearing the jacket and that stronger conditioning occurs when the jacket is explicitly paired with the sexual reward state.
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